- October 9th, 2009
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After 10 years of the beginning of the research, ovo design will implement a new model of the project by architect Luciano Araujo J-AIR 01. Thesis Completed in 2001. (FAU USP)
This technology uses the Google Sketchup tool associated with X-Plane Flight Simulator Parametral Not unlike Flight Simulator calculates the relationship of aerodynamics in real time, taking in cosideration the geometry and engine model.
The re-implementation of the model will consider new technologies such as the use of NTC (CNTs), contact one of the master developers of this technology, I had the information when there is an evolution in the compounds obtained, we can make large equipments, strong enough to create a vacuum and makes them lighter than air! Fascinating.
Original Text ( 2001 ):
The thesis the Airship Balloon, was inspired, mainly by the fascination with aviation inherited from my father, experienced pilot with over 5,000 flight hours, and the vocation of science cultivated by my mother’s Degree in Natural History, and teacher for over thirty years .
It was also the exciting challenge of resuming a technology probably put in limbo by the disaster with the Hindenburg accident was cinematically distributed around the world.
Of course also the honor of having a Brazilian as the great developer of technology (Santos Dumont always had elegant solutions, and always innovated, and the use of constructive elements like bamboo perfect for their structures (like pneumatic bones of birds).
And as the ultimate goal to apply design techniques that I consider essential and which allow the architect and designer, developing projects in several areas, avoinding the traditional view of expertise, I believe in multi-specialization and that naturally develops career and life of any student or professional in love with the art of research and design.
The study lasted three years and was only possible by using the nascent Internet in Brazil (1998), the traditional literature and the collections were virtually nonexistent in Brazil, the top line the possibility of flying the blimp only available in South America at that time, were two flights a total of 8 hours unforgettable.
Initially I seek, inspired by Santos Dumont, and its model number 9, to design a dirigible, powered by man (aka pedal), but with the first geometric calculations for balloons capable of sustaining Pilot + Structure + Envelope , the sail area and ability to generate torque through human strength, made the system very vulnerable to bad weather (aka windstorm).
With this in mind, I went to use the engine more traditional, and from this point, I had two distinct approaches.
The first aircraft would be for sport or for leisure. I Interrupted the studies in the early designs, although compelling, I turned to the program that generated the design of aircraft J-AIR-01
The objective was to design an aircraft dedicated to the monitoring functions of reserves, technical monitoring (power lines / pipelines), scientific research, cinematography, security and monitoring in large cities, merchandising, and scenic flights.
The airship is a type of aircraft lighter than air.
The airship is capable of flying at low speed and even remain geostationary, for long periods, unlike helicopters that need to use almost 100% of its power, airships perform these procedures with low power which represents a low fuel, low vibration and noise, making it the air more comfortable platform for missions of long durability.
Aircraft incredibly versatile, it was responsible for the first round around the world (Graf Zeppelin) by air!, Established air routes with passengers at least 10 years before the planes.
It’s capable of flying in several different climates (the dirigible Norge conquered the North Pole in 1926)
Number 9, the most compact model designed by Santos Dumont was able to land on the Champs-Élysées for a quick coffee cake.
The airships can be classified into three classes.
With rigid structure to maintain the shape of the envelope, the gas is within cylindrical balloons, this is the system invented by Ferdinand Graf von Zeppelin.
This system is more suitable for large airships with at least 100m in length.
This system contains a structure in the central axis of the balloon.
As an example, the airship Norge (N1) of italian construction. This aircraft was the first aircraft to reach the North Pole.
Not Rigid or “blimps”
The format of the envelope is maintained by the pressure of its contents. This was the system chosen to implement the project in question.
The blimps do not have any type of structure, it’s filled out only with helium and air.
Helium is a natural extitor fire, and is produced as a byproduct of the extraction of natural gas.
Helium has a capacity of Lift of 1.02 kg m3 (0.0640 lb/ft3)
The Blimps as those built by ABC (Amerincan Blimp Company), used as reference in the original project. They have volumes that varys between 1900 m3 to 4800m3.
The envelopes are currently composed of extremely resistant materials, are also very light and resistant to UV rays because they have a similar protection to that tedlar only lighter. The UV rays decreased very durability of the first envelopes.
They consist of a Sandwich, the inner layer is composed of a thin waterproof film which is responsible for keeping the helium in place, followed by a fabric of nylon with a diameter of “dental floss”, spaced every 0, 5 centimeters, and finally an outer layer of vinyl, neoprene or rubber. For external protection and UV resistance.
An important factor to consider is that the pressure inside the envelope is very low, and is always around 1 / 15 psi.
Due to this low pressure, a hole in the envelope results in a very slow loss of gas taking hours or even days to affect the ability of flight.
Another important factor is that the nylon fabric prevents the hole to increases in size, the resistance of the envelope material is approximately 300kg/cm2. As the sample obtained according to Goodyear’s team, also made up by a supplier of specialty materials used in NASA space suits.
The Inner Balloon. Balonet
Due the change in volume of helium, when the airship rises the helium expands, when it goes down the helium contracts.
To keep the pressure there is a balloon inside the main balloon called Balonet, is credited to Santos Dumont over this invention. Its operation is simple, it is emptied as the airship rises or inflated when the airship descends.
In the case of J-Air 01, the balonet is inflated recovering the air released by the propellers, leaving the air intakes in the fairing, in case of system failure there are two back-ups systems with electric fans.
Contrary to what one imagines the lift in airships is also obtained through the aerodynamics of the envelope, giving power to the engines the airship behaves like a plane, but requiring much less power and track.
a bit of theory …
Any device operating in an environment can have “Lift”, the three primary sources:
Static Lift, Dynamic Lift and Static Active Lift.
The Static Lift is obtained,for instance, by helium gas.
The Dynamic Lift is obtained by shape of the object associated with a final speed. Ex: Airplane, Hovercraft
The Static Active Lift is used by helicopters or jet aircraft with vertical takeoff and also the hovercraft.
In the case of the project involved the three methods are being used.
The Static Lift will be provided by helium, the dynamic by engine , the static active should be because the engines are pivoting, there is also the possibility of reverse mode.
Geometry of the Balloon:
The design of the envelope is made around the edges by an ellipsoid of revolution and in the central cylinder.
This design was chosen, initially because it is symmetrical as a factor of balance, ease of implementation, lower costs, facilitate the positioning of the gondola with a homogeneous area for touch and gain of volume.
These studies have been done comparing the classical form of airships, with elliptical nose and tail with cone ending.
The gain in volume due to the geometry adopted, it may reach 20%.
The design of the structure is almost all aviation aluminum, Alclad . No solder point for no
loss of resistance.
The flat pieces, all can be cut into router, from the commercial format sheets 3000mm x 1500mm with thickness of 5 mm and recovery layout, avoiding losses.
The modular design has resulted in a reduced number of types of parts, which facilitates the production, assembly
It is also used a system of aluminum tubes that works towards the longest part of the structure.
The seal is made of polycarbonate with a thickness of 5mm.
The engines are specified two Rotax 912S Aircraft Engine.
The specification was based due high power 100hp and extremely low weight of 62 kg with electric start, carburetors, fuel pump, air filter and oil system.
This is an aircraft for three crew members sitting in line (pilot, copilot and Operator), the position of the operator (video / Radar) is inverted.
It was developed using – if sketches, classical geometry. CAD software, digital models, and three-dimensional models.
It was described by drawings and photographic material, Model in 1:20 scale and flights’ shooting in the aircraft model A60 + prefix PT-KMJ along with historical material.
Soon more information.
Profile – J-AIR-01
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